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Python2 to Python3 Hex/Str/Byte Conversion Cheatsheet For Hackers

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If you too have been personally victimized by Python3’s 'str' object has no attribute 'decode' exception or other string/bytes-related exceptions, I feel your agony. Trauma from such errors have stopped me from using Python3 for code handling buffers, like POCs for vulnerabilities or CTF exploits. Here’s a reference guide on how to convert between Python3’s hexstr/str/bytes/bytearray. Python3 Buffer Type Review str An immutable unicode string Created statically using quotes.  Example: mystr = “don’t forget your daily calcium” hexstring A str consisting of hexadecimal numbers (0-9, a-f).  Primarily used to convert binary data to a printable format.  Created like str, but contains only hexadecimal numbers Example: “calc” is “63616c63” bytes An immutable array of one-byte elements Created statically by putting the letter “b” before quotes Example: mybytes = b“bring all the boys to the yard” bytearray  A mutable list of one-byte elements Created through the bytearray c